ESR Profiles

ESR 1

Enhanced Energy and Spectrum Efficiency in LiFi

Supervisor: Dr. W. Popoola (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Profile: This ESR will focus on optimising the energy consumed per bit for a given spectrum efficiency. Interference caused by other VLC nodes in the network will be modelled, and mitigation techniques developed. A unified analytical framework will be developed to model the VLC system performance in the presence of interference, user mobility and energy/spectrum efficiency.

PhD Granting Institution: University of Edinburgh

ESR 2

Low-Power VLC Transmitter Design

Supervisor: Dr. M. Afgani (pureLiFi, United Kingdom)

Profile: The ESR will design and develop a novel LED driver and amplifier architecture that significantly reduces power loss to no detriment of the spectrum efficiency of the existing solutions. A number of prototypes and development cycles will be required to achieve the ideal combination of modulation bandwidth, current capacity, and power efficiency. An  improvement of at least one order of magnitude in power efficiency will be targeted.

PhD Granting Institution: University of Edinburgh

ESR 3

Simultaneous Data and Power Transfer

Supervisor: Dr. M. Uysal (Ozyegin University, Turkey)

Profile: This ESR will explore SWIPT through visible light. For a VLC system with SWIPT, we will first study the information theoretical limits and then formulate the VLC system design as an optimization problem to maximize the harvested energy while satisfying the targeted QoS under illumination constraints.

PhD Granting Institution: Ozyegin University

ESR 4

Passive Communication and Sensing

Supervisor: Dr. M. Zúñiga (TU Delft, Netherlands)

Profile: Modulating passive sources like sunlight is impossible, instead we will use smart surfaces to modulate the incident light signals by altering their properties between reflective and absorbing states (e.g. with materials such as eInk, LCD shutters or smart glass). Optical receivers deployed in our environments could then decode the reflected light signals to read passive information.

PhD Granting Institution: TU Delft

ESR 5

Resource-constrained VLC

Supervisor: Dr. D. Puccinelli (SUPSI, Switzerland)

Profile: This ESR project will focus on energy-aware communication strategies at the data link layer. The project will begin with an experimental investigation of resource-constrained VLC that will address the joint impact of link-layer duty-cycling and channel-level phenomena (such as shadowing). The energy cost at the link layer will be thoroughly studied and will pave the way to a novel medium access control layer optimized for resourceconstrained communication.

PhD Granting Institution: TU Delft

ESR 6

Resilient LiFi for IoT

Supervisor: Dr. H. Haas (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Profile: This ESR will address scenarios with random obstruction, random orientation and multiple reflections, which are typical of the IoT. These effects will be modeled and their effects accounted for in the overall system performance and energy budget analysis. The ESR will also investigate the coordination of multiple APs within an ultra-dense LiFi network architecture and seamless handover techniques when a node moves from one AP to another.

PhD Granting Institution: University of Edinburgh

ESR 7

Algorithms for Joint Reconfiguration of Smart Lighting and LiFi Access Points in Dense Deployments

Supervisor: Dr. M. Afgani (pureLiFi, United Kingdom)

Profile: The primary task of this ESR will be to analyse the existing approaches used in smart building and smart lighting, and evaluate the applicability of these algorithms to control the LiFi access point jointly with the lighting system. LiFi connectivity requirements will be compared to those of the illumination control and categorized for further analysis and for proposing appropriate solutions. The performances of each solution will be thoroughly analysed.

PhD Granting Institution: University of Edinburgh

ESR 8

Bi-directional Communication for Battery-free Devices (for Integration between Home Automation and VLC)

Supervisor: Dr. D. Giustiniano (IMDEA Networks, Spain)

Profile:

This project targets the integration of VLC with RF backscatter. While VLC downlink can exploit the low-energy footprint of light bulbs for communication, RF backscatter can instead operate efficiently in uplink without using batteries (yet are very inefficient in downlink). This ESR will design a new harvesting and communication paradigm that enables high-performance bi-directional, scalable and pervasive deployments of battery-free devices, with communication devices and network protocols that jointly use light and radio. Check the position paper “Connecting Battery-free IoT Tags Using LED Bulbs” for more details.

PhD Granting Institution: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

ESR 9

Integration of Visible Light and Radio Frequency Communication in the Network Access

Supervisor: Dr. I. Tinnirello (Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy)

Profile: We will explore the efficient integration of VLC and RF, in order to let the existing RF infrastructure leverage the increasing pervasiveness of LEDs. First, we will study and implement hybrid architectures to build pervasive VLC systems that complement RF. Second, we will investigate topics such as intelligent technology selection and vertical handover strategies, in order to provide seamless connectivity in high-density/high-blockage scenarios.

PhD Granting Institution: Università degli Studi di Palermo

ESR 10

Integration of VLC Access and mm-wave Backhauling

Supervisor: Dr. P. Casari (IMDEA Networks, Spain)

Profile: We will explore the design of LED bulbs that use VLC to communicate to users, and instead leverage mm-wave radios to establish a connection to the backend. mm-wave is an attractive solution for backhauling, as the antenna spacing is very small at mm-wave frequencies. Moreover, it is envisioned that mm-wave chipsets could be integrated in the future in light bulbs.

PhD Granting Institution: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

ESR 11

VLC-BLE Indoor Positioning System

Supervisor: Dr. U. Raza (Toshiba Research Europe Ltd., United Kingdom)

Profile: The idea is to join strengths of the accuracy of the VLC and the energy efficiency of Bluetooth Low Energy. Factors that limit the commercial viability of today’s VLC-based localization include: a) the need for significant changes in luminaire design to modulate the transmitted light, b) the use of energy-inefficient general-purpose cameras as VLC receivers. The work involves identifying the minimal set of hardware changes required on both luminaires and handheld devices to increase the energy efficiency of the handheld devices while improving the location accuracy. The latest advances in Bluetooth Low Energy will be exploited as well to achieve highly accurate positioning accuracy for large public spaces such as supermarkets, retail stores and warehouses, etc.

PhD Granting Institution: Università degli Studi di Palermo

ESR 12

Power-efficient Underwater Wireless Optical Communications

Supervisor: Dr. J. Rufo (LightBee, Spain)

Profile: This ESR will take into account that optical emitters and receivers present a better response to long wavelengths than to short ones. Although the best transmission windows are generally located in the blue-green region, the response of the devices makes red transmissions more energy-efficient below a critical distance. The use of low-power underwater IoT networks will be tested in a practical setup to measure the water quality parameters in seas, rivers and water treatment stations.

PhD Granting Institution: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

ESR 13

VLC-enabled Energy Disaggregation

Supervisor: Dr. P. Pawełczak (TU Delft, Netherlands)

Profile: We propose to combine energy disaggregation methods with the VLC infrastructure. When a light bulb modulates its intensity for communication, it also affects its power draw, resulting in a unique current signature that can be used by energy disaggregation methods to monitor the energy consumption of every light bulb in a building. These current signatures, however, will be exposed to interference and distortion. Our proposed solution is to modulate robust codes in the light and current domains. Aside from enabling a fine-grained energy monitoring of LEDs with no external sensors, this can help with indoor localization as well.

PhD Granting Institution: TU Delft

ESR 14

Optical frontend design for Vehicle-to-Anything (V2X) communication

Supervisor: Dr. E. Kınav (FORD OTOSAN, Turkey)

Profile: We will design, implement, and validate an optical front-end design for optical V2X communication. Since vehicles are constantly moving, an optical frontend with multi-directional characteristics will increase the reliability of the communication link. Such frontend will not require an exact optical alignment between the sender and the receiver, e.g. between vehicles or between vehicles and infrastructure.

PhD Granting Institution: Ozyegin University

ESR 15

Low-power Architectures for Reliable VLC in Transportation and Manufacturing

Supervisor: Dr. E. Kınav (FORD OTOSAN, Turkey)

Profile: We will implement novel architectures and front-end designs to enable low-power visible-light IoT devices for reliable transportation and manufacturing. This will require an investigation on HW architectures and front-end design options, as well as, a comprehensive use case requirement analysis. The analog front-end and the optics (e.g. lenses and concentrators), will be designed and optimized to reduce the power consumption for the use case at hand. The proposed solutions will be evaluated in terms of achievable performance and complexity trade-offs (backed-up by numerical results). We will implement a proof-of-concept including an experimental verification for the most promising solution.

PhD Granting Institution: Ozyegin University